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Luca Mandalino

The Theory of push lines.

The four unescapable push lines and the five fundamental principles of modern tennis playing technique.

How I realized the “Theory of push lines” and the “4T Method”.

“The theory of push lines” , the “Five fundamental principles” and the “4T method”  represent the essence of my conclusions in over thirty years of research, study and testing of the technique in carrying out strokes, teaching methods and training. In all these years, the passion for tennis and the persistence in  adopting the comparative and check method of the observance of the laws of physics and biomechanics have gradually persuaded me to...
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The objectives of this manual.

Nowadays, the level of knowledge on the human body and on what surrounds it causes the theory of the technique to execute strokes to be considered only and exclusively in a scientific sense. In this regard, everything that appears to be approximate is incomplete and sometimes incorrect. I do not intend to say with this that my theory is perfect and that the others are not. On the contrary, I made it possible for it to be consulted free of charge on-line and I submit it to your judgment:...
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Concept errors. The laws of physics and biomechanics do not make exceptions.

I am not a physics or biomechanics teacher but allow me to say that “one must always use common sense and submit to reason”. It may seem a stereotyped expression or a common saying but, bearing in mind this expression, we come to think of the impulsiveness, irresponsibility and need to overdo which are often typical characteristics of beginners and young competitive players  who make concept mistakes wasting energies and precious time. It often happens that you see...
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Principle number one: “The synergic action of the player having a dynamic effect on the ball.”

Sometimes, watching tennis matches played by professional players can be monotonous. For instance, when two regularists play on a clay court and with a succession of rebound topspin shots, at a rather high ball speed, prevent one another from applying different tactical schemes. On the other hand, other matches are captivating and spectacular. We are all amazed by the ease with which some champions succeed in obtaining impressive dynamic spins, playing service balls with extreme precision...
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Principle number two: “Specular synergy.”

It often happens that you see players who are capable of expressing an excellent game level with forehand strokes from the backcourt whereas they are terribly rough when playing backhand strokes. The cause of a marked difference in level between the two fundamental strokes are often due to the method by which the player practices in two separate phases forehand and backhand strokes on rebound, ignoring the principle of “specular synergy” which on the contrary indissolubly binds...
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Principle number three: “Hit the ball in the area of maximum force and maximum sensitivity.”

A tired player has less energy, clearness of mind, ability to coordinate movements and finds difficulty in “feeling his body”, thus increasing the percentage of gratuitous mistakes. Statements such as “I don’t feel my legs” and  “I don’t feel my arm” mean that the decrease in strength corresponds to a loss of sensitivity and it is equivalent to saying goodbye to “the feel of the ball”. After these considerations, let us...
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Principle number four: “The main point of greater pressure of the hand on the grip, useful for forehand, service, smash strokes and the secondary point, used for backhand strokes, wield their force on a push line passing through the barycentre axis of the racket.”

Holding the racket correctly is fundamental to execute effective shots which would impress a dynamic spin to the ball by exerting the minimum effort required. With the game stopped, we hold the racket and we press our fingers against the palm of the hand in a sufficiently even grip. When playing a stroke by moving the racket quickly in the air,  some parts of the hand exert a greater pressure on the grip and when we hit the ball we can clearly feel the point of greater...
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Principle number five: “The hypothenar adhering to the end part of the grip, acts as fulcrum and pivot of the dynamic mechanisms of the racket.”

The adherence of the hypothenar to the butt of the racket handle is an essential reference to analyse the correct grips and it represents the second of the two factors which determine the dynamic mechanism of the racket. The hypothenar, which acts simultaneously as fulcrum and pivot, allows to obtain a “quick acceleration  of the string face”,  compared to the handle, with all the different angles of the push line passing through the barycentre axis of the...
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“The theory of push lines”. The four unescapable push lines and the five fundamental principles of modern tennis playing technique.

The optimal execution strokes. The theory of push lines places the five fundamental principles at the service of a single logic which analyses and connects the unescapable  push lines with each other. The four push lines are to be considered inescapable and linked together for all the optimal execution strokes and they allow these to be carried out in accordance with  the five fundamental principles, in an essential way, with the minimal effort needed to obtain the best push...
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Rebound shots.

Coming soon.

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Volley shots.

Coming soon.

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Service and smash shots.

Coming soon.

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“The tennis of the past”. “The new forehand to a rebound in back-spin”. “The perfect player” and “the player of the future”.

Tennis has always been in evolution and it is still evolving; in the seventies you played with wood rackets, tennis players were not super athletes and the playing technique was approximate and very different compared to the modern one. You played with wide excursions of the arm and position of the feet which prevented the natural synergic action of the body; the forehand stroke was played in a sideways position to the net and at the end of the stroke the shoulders were turned forward...
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